These include a number of important rights and obligations agreements with several aviation partners: the 2001 Multilateral Agreement on the Liberalization of International Air Transport (MALIAT) with New Zealand, Singapore, Brunei and Chile, to which Tonga and Mongolia subsequently acceded; the 2007 Air Services Agreement with the European Union and its Member States; and the 2011 Air Services Agreement between the United States of America, the European Republic and its Member States, Iceland and Norway. The United States has more restrictive air agreements with a number of other countries, including China. One of the first ATAs after World War II was the Bermuda Agreement, signed in 1946 by Britain and the United States. The features of this agreement have become models for the thousands of such agreements that were to follow, although in recent decades some of the traditional clauses of these agreements have been modified (or “liberalized”) in accordance with the “open skies” policy of some governments, particularly the United States.  An air services agreement (sometimes referred to as an air services agreement, or ATA or ASA) is a bilateral agreement that allows international commercial air services between signatories. The Department of Foreign Affairs negotiates, in collaboration with the Ministries of Transport and Trade, agreements with foreign governments that provide the framework for commercial air services. The most liberal of these civil air transport agreements, called “open skies” agreements, offered the possibility of expanding international passenger and cargo flights to and from the United States. . .