The claim that Article 24 could be used in this way has been criticised as unrealistic by Mark Carney, Liam Fox and other parties, given that there must be agreement between the parties to paragraph 5 quarter of the Treaty for paragraph 5 ter to be useful in the event of a no-deal scenario. There would be no agreement. In addition, critics of the GATT 24 approach point out that services would not be covered by such regulation.   For the most part, agriculture was excluded from previous agreements, as it was granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with slight reservations. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries felt that the exception for agriculture was so blatant that they refused to sign a new agreement without agricultural products without movement. These fourteen countries were known as the “Cairns Group” and consisted mainly of small and medium-medium-largest agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand. Collaborative leadership in the area of trade facilitation on certain topics offers a glimmer of hope on the political horizon and deserves greater attention. For granted in 2014, 14 WTO members, including the US, China and the EU, reached a plurilateral agreement to remove non-discriminatory tariffs on environmental goods such as solar panels and wind turbines. A leadership approach is to continue on a progressive path, hoping that the momentum from below can be maintained if there is no global governance from above.
A second approach could be to achieve the broader goal of a global compact for sustainable investment. This would contribute significantly to global governance by making us forget the traditional gap between investment protection and sustainable development that has hit international economic institutions since their inception. With respect to the Asian regional context, the establishment of APEC in the early 1990s and recent attempts to establish the TPP offer a deeper insight into the relationship between structural and collaborative frameworks in the development of institutional arrangements for trade, economic development and investment. Gatt and its successor, the WTO, have succeeded in reducing tariffs. Average tariffs for the main GATT participants were about 22% in 1947 and 5% after the Uruguay Round in 1999.  Experts attribute some of these customs changes to GATT and the WTO.    The TPP`s current accounts tend to conclude that there is strong U.S. structural leadership. This does not take into account the collaborative aspects of the partnership approach and the complexity of the negotiations. Unlike APEC, the origins of the TPP lie in a more formal, state-funded process.