The potential of workers to be affected by different regulatory flows makes the current allocation difficult to calculate; For example, part of their compensation and terms can be paid by bonuses and some of it can be settled by another form of agreements. Table 4.2 contains some indications. It suggests that the proportion of workers who paid exactly the premium quota in 2006 was relatively low – 19%.5 What were the main alternatives to rewards? The category of registered individual agreements, particularly federal ACCORDS, was small (3.1 per cent). An important category consisted of unregistered individual contracts covering 31.7% of employees, but it should be a heterogeneous group composed of certain employees in an unregulated sector, mainly governed by national contracts, with certain employees whose wages are determined mainly by an increase or agreement, but who benefit from additional remuneration granted by their employer. , known as the Over-Award. We then registered collective agreements that represent 38.1% of employees. These data do not distinguish between union and non-union collective agreements, but it is likely that there will be many more trade union agreements. Employers seem less fond of unionism in the workplace. This has often led to an agreement with industry unions on uniform rules for the representation of workers at the enterprise level, as in Italy. In some countries, such as the United States, the representation of unitary unions is introduced by legal procedure.
In other countries, trade unionism is merged into the workplace to become institutions of legal participation, which gives the works councils, elected by the staff as a whole, rights of information, consultation and codecision, while ensuring that the management of the company has a single equivalent with which to negotiate. While enterprise committees are not able to organize strikes in most countries, they tend to have close ties with internal and external unions, not least because most of their members are generally also unionized. The most direct strategies are those that require equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of equal value. Equal pay for equal work was most effective when they called for the elimination of differences in pay rates between men and women in industrial agreements. For example, the rapid reduction of the gender pay gap in Australia and the United Kingdom in the 1970s demonstrates the effectiveness of measures to eliminate direct discrimination in collective agreements (Gregory et al.