Treaty of Bassein, (December 31, 1802), pact between Baji Rao II, the Maratha peshwa of Poona (now Pune) in India and the British. It was a decisive step in the dissolution of the Maratha Confederacy. The pact led directly to the annexation of Peshwa territories in western India by the East India Company in 1818. The Maratha Confederacy was distracted by disagreements after the death of Minister Peshwa, Nana Fadnavis, in 1800. Military leaders Daulat Rao Sindhia and Jaswant Rao Holkar (Hulkar), both with disciplined forces behind their backs, applied for control of the Peshwa. In October 1802, Holkar defeated Sindhia and Peshwa and installed an adoptive brother on the throne of Pune. Baji Rao fled to Bassein and asked for British help. In this article, we will describe the circumstances that led to the Treaty of Bassein, 1802, and we will also talk about its consequences. It was the state of maratha when Lord Wellesley arrived in India.
Wellesley was determined to make the company the most important power in India. He first destroyed the power of Tipu Sultan. Then he devoted his attention to the marathas. Soon he had the opportunity to interfere in the affairs of the marates. Jaswant Rag Holkar fought the Peshwa and Sindhia. In October 1802, he defeated Peshwa Baji Rao in a battle near Poona. The Peshwa fled to Bassein, while Holkar Vinayak Rao, grandson of Raghunath Rao, placed peshwa on The Gaddi. Desperate, the Peshwa sought the english alliance and signed the Treaty of Bassein on 31 December 1802. Between the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century between the British and the Maratha, three wars of Anglo-Maratha (or maratha) took place. In the end, Maratha`s power was destroyed and British supremacy was built.
The internal affairs of the Maraathas deteriorated further after the end of the first maratha war. Nana Fadnavis became in power, jealous of Mahadaji Sindhia and was gradually inclined to seek the support of the English. The young Peshwa, Madhava Rao II tried to improve things, but failed. Mahadaji Sindhia died in 1794 and was replaced by his great-nephew Daulat Rao Sindhia, whose estate was even challenged by his mother. Peshwa Madhav Rao II committed on October 17, 1795. First Chimnaji and the next Baji Rao II were placed in each case on the Gaddi of Peshwa and behind it. Baji Rao was totally unfit to manage the affairs of a vast empire like that of the marates.